AO3 Critical Reception Homework – Tess, Gatsby, Rapture

Having had a skim read of your mock responses, students in all three classes would benefit from researching critical views on the three texts.

For Rapture this is more likely to involve reviews rather than critical essays but clearly for Gatsby and Tess there’s a wealth of critical material for you to read.

For your homework, please post a selection (6<12) of critical quotes you have found (with names and date please) for each text. Please make sure your quotes are succinct and make sense on their own.

Deadline: Friday 18th November

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29 Responses to AO3 Critical Reception Homework – Tess, Gatsby, Rapture

  1. Hello bloggers.
    Here are some critics quotes for the Great Gatsby.
    1. ”This patient romantic hopefulness against existing conditions symbolizes Gatsby”.
    said by Edwin Clark, 1925 for the New York Times
    2. ” The queer charm, colour, wonder and drama of a young and wreckless world”
    said by William Rose Benet, 1925
    3. ”Their idiotic pursuit of sensation, their almost incredible stupidity and triviality, their glittering swinishness—these are the things that go into his book.”
    said by H.L Mencken 1925

    Critics quotes for Tess….
    1. ”Tess was a human being, of human passions {…] here are all the ingredients for the blackest misery”.
    said by Andrew Lang, 1982 for The New Review
    2. ” a mere corpse drifting with the current to her end”. ( my favourite! 🙂 )
    said by Thomas Hardy himself, 1982
    3. ” it illustrates the ache of modernism”.
    said by Dale Kramer , for Cambridge University 1991

    and finally here are some review’s quotes on Rapture…..
    1. ” even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy”.
    ” love is an extremity, only rivalled by death. And desire is almost a death wish”.
    both said by Kate Kellaway for the Observer, 2005
    2. ” it draws on tradition, but is very up to date”.
    said by Margaret Reynolds for the Guardian 2006
    3. ” the form that dominates rapture is the sonnet, the magical shape so suited to refelctions of love”.
    said by Ruth Padel for the Independent 2005.
    enjoy!! 🙂

  2. Lauren Hayward says:

    Critics quotes for Gatsby:
    1) “Fitzgerald gives us a meditation on some of this country’s most central ideas, themes, yearnings and preoccupations: the quest for a new life, the preoccupation with class, the hunger for riches.” – Jonathan Yardley for The Washington Post (2007).
    2) “This is a story that, in its telling, resembles real life. We don’t see the justification that the other characters use for their actions. We only see their actions, and Carraway’s interpretation of their actions.” – Jerry Stratton (2006).

    Critics quotes for Tess:
    1) “The thing most likely to trouble a modern reader of Hardy’s novel is Tess’s passivity.” – Jane Shilling for the Daily Mail (2008).
    2) “If writing the book was an affecting experience, reading it proves equally so.” – Elizabeth Day for The Guardian (2008).

    Critics quotes for Rapture:
    1) “Rapture is intimate as a diary” – Kate Kellaway for The Guardian (2005).
    2) “An extended rhapsody on a love affair, ushering the reader from first spark to full flame to final, messy conflagration.” – Xan Brooks for The Guardian (2006).

  3. Emily McEleny says:

    Rapture:
    1. ‘I think that love and death are both things that we can reclaim through memory, so although time takes things away from us- through bereavement or divorce- we can still have the memory of things, and that is quite a consolation.’ Carol Ann Duffy, The Times, 2011.
    2. ‘The trajectory of a love affair from its giddy beginnings, with poems of almost prelapsarian sensuality, to deep love and then its sorrowful end.’ Ginny Dougary, The Times, 2011.

    Tess:
    1. (Hardy on Wessex) ‘He saw man working, labouring, loving against the background of a malignant indifferent fate.’ ‘Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles’, Alka Saxena and Sudhir Dixit, 2001
    2. ‘Hardy … suggests that life is characterised by ethereality or abstract values and emphasises the daunting rigour of maintaining life.’ ‘Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d’Urbervilles’, Dale Kramer, 1991
    3. ‘The novel’s concentration on Tess’s trapped existence becomes so intense and unremitting.’ ‘Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d’Urbervilles’, Dale Kramer, 1991

    (I couldn’t find many Tess critics that talked about positivity!)

    Gatsby:
    1. ‘Nick wants to portray Gatsby as ‘great’ and to ignore or edit anything that might undermine that image.’ ‘The English Review’, Claire Stocks, 2007
    2. ‘Even in America, Fitzgerald seems to suggest, society is strictly ordered, and for the elite to retain their exclusive position at the top of the hierarchy, those below them must also remain in their proper place.’ Claire Stocks, 2007
    3. ‘Fantastic proof that chivalry, of a sort, is not dead.’ Life Magazine, 1925
    4. ‘Gatsby lives in the world of romantic energies and colors, a world shaped as a conspiracy between himself and the writer who has been creating him.’ ‘Fitzgerald’s ‘Radiant World’’, Thomas Flanagan, 2000
    5. ‘The spectral underclass, simultaneously invisible and obtrusive, marginalized and central, wreaks the novel’s horrific climax, emerging as the apocalyptic assassin of that ideologically saturated “ideal” order.’ (That one’s quite intense!) ‘From the Dream to the Womb: Visionary Impulse and Political Ambivalence in The Great Gatsby’, Chris Fitter, 1998

    Enjoy!

  4. Criddle says:

    Quotes about Tess/Hardy:
    1. “A struggle between man on one hand, and an omnipotent and indifferent fate, on the other hand goes on and that is Hardy’s interpretation of the human situation.” David Cecil
    2. “Happiness is but an occasional episode in the general drama of life” Hardy

    Quotes about Rapture/Duffy:
    1. “Her aim is to communicate.” Eliana Tomkins
    2. “She was the first poet to push language and form, their limits and tensions, to articulate that bankrupt and dislocated era.” Lavinia Greenlaw

    Quotes about The Great Gatsby/Fitzgerald:
    1. “F. Scott Fitzgerald’s life is a tragic example of both sides of the American Dream – the joys of young love, wealth and success, and the tragedies associated with excess and failure.” PBS biographys F. Scott Fitzgerald and the American Dream
    2. “Life is essentially a cheat and its conditions are those of defeat … the redeeming things are not happiness and pleasure…but the deeper satisfactions that come out of struggle.” F.Scott to his daughter.

    Cheers 🙂

  5. Jess Burrell says:

    TESS
    ‘Her sexuality is above all provocative: she is a temptress to the convert Alec, an Eve to Angel Clare’. Penny Boumelha, of Tess in Thomas Hardy and Women: ‘Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form’ (1982)
    ‘Tess is an example of the destructive effect of society’s pressures and conventions upon a nature naturally pure and unstained’. Simon Gatrell, Thomas Hardy and the Proper Study of Mankind, (1993)
    ‘Nature seems to disdain, ignore or make mockery of the laws which social being impose on themselves. The fetish of chastity is a ludicrous aberration in a world which teems and spills with such promiscuous and far-flung fertility every year’. Dorothy Van Ghent, The English Novel: Form and Function, (1953)

    RAPTURE
    [The poems are] ‘intimate and teasingly anonymous. Pain has more character than the person who has inflicted it.’
    ‘Only the scenery endures: stars, moon, roses, graves […] This is an elemental love – it could belong to any time were it not for the occasional contemporary accessories’
    Both by Kate Kellaway, The Observer Review, (2005)
    ‘If a poem endures, the life is between the reader and the poem. The poet should not be in the way.’ Carol Ann Duffy, in an interview with Jeanette Winterson

    GATSBY
    ‘It is one of those novels that so richly evoke the texture of their time that they become, in the fullness of time, more than literary classics; they become a supplementary or even substitute form of history’. Matthew J. Bruccoli, Introduction to New Essays on The Great Gatsby, (1985)

    ‘The novel takes on the verbal complexity of the poem, and Fitzgerald skillfully tells a compelling story at the same time as he brilliantly compresses elements involving American history and Western culture’. Richard Lehan, The Text as Construct: Narrative Knots and Narrative Unfolding, (2010)

  6. Mia Delve says:

    Critics:
    Rapture, Carol Ann Duffy
    1. Margaret Reynolds: “These poems are almost old-fashioned in their commitment to rhyme, assonance and metre.”
    2. Frances Leviston “These poems are intent as an obsessed lover upon their subject”
    3. Kate Kellaway “Love is an extremity, rivalled only by death”

    The Great Gatsby, F Scott Fizgerald
    1. Harold Bloom on Daisy and Tom’s lifestyle “To our sense of the restlessness and frutility of their lives is now added an element of brutality and arrogance”
    2. Harold Bloom “So much of the meaning in Gatsby comes out of it’s imagery, it’s texture and the complexity of its motifs”

    Tess Of The Dubivilles, Thomas Hardy
    1. Jane Shilling “A century later, it is fascinating to consider the extent to which his [Hardy’s] views – radical enough at the time to scandalise the critics – have become almost conventional.”
    2. Clementina Black”It’s superiority is largely due to a profound moral earnestness”

  7. Becky Lam says:

    Critics quotes on Tess:
    • “From the moment of the meeting in the garden the harmonious relations between Tess and her world begin to be repressed and displaced by certain abstractions mediated by Angel’s idealising vision.” Thomas Hardy: Towards a Materialist Criticism, George Wotton, 1985
    • “…The passionate commitment to exhibiting Tess as the subject of her own experience evokes an unusually overt maleness in the narrative voice.” Thomas Hardy and Women: Penny Boumelha, 1982
    • “He [Hardy] picked up and remarkably embodies one of the characteristic themes of the new social situation: that of mobility through education.” Thomas Hardy: The Writer and his Background, Merryn and Raymond Williams, 1992

    Critics quotes on The Great Gatsby:
    • “Moments of happiness or triumph from the past can neither be recaptured nor repeated, and for that reason seldom can they be forgotten.” ‘Boats Against the Current’: Mortality and the Myth of Renewal in The Great Gatsby, Jeffrey Steinbrink, 1980
    • “Nick progresses from innocence to experience before finally locating a moral vision.”
    “Nick is considered quite reliable, basically honest, and ultimately changed by his contact with Gatsby.” The International Fiction Review, David O’Rourke, Centennial College, 1982
    • “Nick Carraway is to be respected for his moral concern – East Vs. West, they are opposites but cannot stay rigid, blurred or confused in identity patterns.” Gatsby and the Hole in Time, R. W Stallman, 1955

    Reviews of Carol Ann Duffy’s ‘Rapture’:
    • “She knows the end of the story, but she also knows what will survive.” The Guardian, Margaret Reynolds, 2006
    • “Poetry, above all is a series of intense moments – its power is not in narrative. I’m not dealing with facts, I’m dealing with emotion.” Carol Ann Duffy
    • “The subject of her latest work [Rapture] is the specifics of love, not the specifics of the lovers. Its inhabitants could be young or old, gay or straight.”
    “Cliché is overturned.” The Guardian, Xan Brooks, 2006
    🙂

  8. Kate Ferguson says:

    Gatsby:
    I liked this one about how Gatsby thinks of Daisy, I actually feel quite sorry for her: ‘no woman, no human being, could ever approximate the platonic ideal he has invented’.
    Leland S. Person, Jr

    On Myrtle’s death, breast hanging loose like a flap ‘all this suggests an extrememly primitive act of agression.’ John Paulson. He is interesting to look at, as he takes a psycho-analytic, Freudian approach to Gatsby which can give you a whole other way of looking at the text.

    Tess:
    Tess is ‘trapped by a sexuality which seems at times almost irrelevant to her own experience’ Penny Boumelha. That’s an interesting one if you want to suggest that evolutionary instincts completely subvert Tess’ will.
    ‘Angel…finds it easier to love from afar an idealised humanity in the abstract than a flawed human being, close at hand, in the flesh.’ Charlotte Thompson.

    Rapture:
    “a coherent and passionate collection, very various in all its unity of purpose. In the language and circumstances of our day and age, it re-animates and continues a long tradition of the poetry of love and loss” David Constantine

    Also, Duffy has said that she’s a ‘self-confessed atheist’ which I thought might be helpful for context when we’re deciding in what way to view the religious allusions in the poetry.

    🙂

  9. Sarah Hawkins says:

    Hello you wonderful, wondeful people! 🙂

    Here are my ‘well researched’ critical quotes on Gatsby, Tess and Rapture 🙂

    The Great Gatbsy:
    Kathleen Parkinson: ‘Like much of Fitzgerald’s prose, it is neat and well–crafted. Fitzgerald seems to have had a brilliant understanding of lives that are corrupted by greed and incredibly sad and unfulfilled.’
    Bryant Magnum: “Fitzgerald’s ambitious goal as he approached the composition of The Great Gatsby was to “write something new–something extraordinary and beautiful and simple + intricately patterned.”

    Tess of the D’urbevilles:
    Irving Howe: “At least twice in the book Tess seems to Hardy and the surrounding characters larger than life, but in all such instances it is not to make her a goddess or a metaphor, it is to understand her embattled womanliness. ”
    D.H. Lawrence: “The female in her was indomitable, unchangeable, she was utterly constant to herself. But she was, by long breeding, intact from mankind. Though Alec d’Urberville was of no kin to her, yet, in the book, he has always a quality of kinship.”

    Rapture:
    Kate Kellaway: “The poems are wonderful. But before forming any judgment of them, I found myself developing a hostility to the love object: the casualness, the ‘strolling’ into the life – even that lucky laugh.”
    Margaret Reynolds: “Rapture is sad, but not bleak. It draws on tradition, but is very up to date. Duffy is a poet who surprises with images that are precisely funny.”

  10. Jade Madge says:

    Tess:
    “The narrators undeniably erotic fascination with her [Tess] takes the form of a visual preoccupation with her physical presence, and it has even been suggested that the narrator derives an almost sadistic pleasure from Tess’s suffering, that he shares in part the distorted views of her held by both Alec and Angel, and that he in some sense does himself violate her with his male voice and his male eye.” -Kristen Brady

    ‘For an artist as visually sensitive as Hardy, colour is of the first importance and significance, and there is one colour which literary catches the eye, and is meant to catch it, throughout the book. This colour is red, the colour of blood, which is associated with Tess from first to last. It dogs her, disturbs her, destroys her. She is full of it, she spills it, she loses it. Watching Tess’ life we begin to see that her destiny is nothing more or less than the colour red.’ -Tony Tanner

    Gatsby:
    ‘In one sense Gatsby is the apotheosis of his rootless society. His background is cosmopolitan, his past a mystery, his temperament that of an opportunist entirely oblivious to the claims of people of the world outside…. He really believes in himself and his illusions: and this quality of faith… sets him apart from the cynically armoured midgets whom he epitomizes. It makes him bigger than they are, and more vulnerable.’ -A. E. Dyson

    ‘It is Nick’s own confused responsiveness to his cousin’s sexual power and charm that allows him subsequently to understand Gatsby’s equation of Daisy with all that is most desirable under the heavens – ultimately with the siren song of the American continent. Nick cannot help but be compelled by the buoyant vitality which surrounds her.’ -Joyce A. Rowe

    Rapture:
    ‘Rapture is intimate as a diary – except that it is free of particularity, of identifying characteristics about the lover, who could be anyone but is not quite everyone.’ -Kate Kellaway

    ‘They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy. These are poems that will be recognised by anyone who has ever been sexually obsessed to a self-punishing degree.’ -Kate Kellaway

    ‘Duffy is a very brave poet. Only pop songs are braver in their use of repetition, and in “Finding the Words” she succeeds in making an ordinary “I love you” into something extraordinary. Only gameshow hosts are braver in their use of puns, and in “Fall” she rushes headlong through at least five meanings of the word, to end with another pun in “your passionate gravity”.’ -Margaret Reynolds

    🙂

  11. Alexandra Snell says:

    Gatsby

    “It seems to me that no American novel comes closer than “Gatsby” to surpassing literary artistry, and none tells us more about ourselves.” Jonathan Yardley (found from article made 2010)

    “With sensitive insight and keen psychological observation, Fitzgerald discloses in these people a meanness of spirit, carelessness and absence of loyalties. He cannot hate them, for they are dumb in their insensate selfishness, and only to be pitied […] he writes well, for he writes naturally.” Edwin Clark (1925)

    “Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is an ambivalent re-codification of patriarchy. The text
    critiques the objectification of women: both Tom Buchanan’s treatment of his mistress
    Myrtle and his wife Daisy, and Gatsby’s idealization and manipulation of Daisy. It also
    expresses some conditional admiration for the increasing social and economic
    emancipation of women.” Stefaan Steyn (found from article made 2010)

    Rapture

    “But, like a brilliant general with mixed troops, Duffy marshals her material so well that one can almost forget its occasional tiredness.” Francis Leviston (2008)

    “This is an elemental love – it could belong to any time were it not for the occasional contemporary accessories: a little black dress (metaphorical) and a mobile phone (actual).” Kate Kellaway (2005)

    “Time and time again, Duffy turns to religious language (and to myth) to supply the words and significance she seeks in the relationship described in Rapture. Duffy believes that all poetry is prayer.” Margaret Reynolds (2006)

    Tess

    “By placing a moral evaluation of Tess at the very beginning of the novel, Hardy invites his readers to judge and evaluate Tess as well.” Lynn Parker (2008, I think!)

    “The condition of women in the nineteenth century is a litmus test of the idea that society is self sustaining and inclusive entity, and consequently their condition rivets public attention.” Elizabeth Ermath (2008, I think)

    “The ‘loss’ of a maids virginity implies carelessness, this carelessness is demonstrably that of society, and the maids parents. Ideally, parents provide a protective environment for their children, teaching them the skills they need to survive. Individually however, they are shown to chase political or economic gain at the cost of their child’s happiness.” Michelle Chapman (1999)

  12. Alex Shaw says:

    ‘Rapture’

    ‘Rapture is Duffy’s most intimate avowal of same-sex desire’
    http://sarahditum.com/2009/05/13/paperhouse-reads-rapture/

    (her poems) ‘reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy.’
    ‘Love is an extremity, rivalled only by death. It is more often ‘glamorous hell’ than heaven. ‘
     Kate kellaway, The Guardian

    ‘The Great Gatsby’

    ‘Fitzgerald portrays the 1920s as an era of decayed social and moral values, evidenced in its overarching cynicism, greed, and empty pursuit of pleasure.’
    Spark notes

    ‘From the gold hat mentioned in the novel’s epigram to the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock, The Great Gatsby is filled with things that are gold and green: the colors of money.’
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature/The-Great-Gatsby-The-Great-Gatsby-at-a-Glance.id-119.html

    ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’

    ‘Cast out by a morally hypocritical society, Tess identifies most strongly with the natural world and it is here that Hardy’s textual lyricism comes into its own.’
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/nov/23/tess-d-urbervilles-thomas-hardy?INTCMP=SRCH
    Elizabeth Day, The observer

    ‘deliberately or instinctively Hardy is using Romantic values as a critical instrument against those of his own day’
    Hardy: The tragic novels, critical essays edited by R P Draper, from essay on ‘Jude the Obscure’ by Robert B. Heilman (P. 211)

  13. Chynna Davies says:

    good evening 🙂

    Rapture critics….
    1.ruth padel- “echoing traditional craft from Shakespeare to MacNeice, while making poems that will sound sweetly to all: “thir silhouettes/ simple as faith.”
    “Duffy’s double entendre reminds us how poems overlay or writes ‘over’ experience”
    2. Margaret Reynolds- “I read it on the tube, and missed my station. I read it in bed, and couldn’t sleep. I read it at my desk, and started to cry. Affairs are notoriously disruptive”
    “Duffy is a very brave poet. Only pop songs are braver in their use of repetition”
    “distinctively intellectual attention to repetition and wordplay.”

    Tess critics….
    1. A. Kettle- “Tess’s death is artistically as inevitable as Juliet’s…She is up against a social situation that she can do nothing to resolve except tragically, with drastic human loss”
    2. Leon Waldoff – “It seems impossible to read the novel with a complete disregard of the idea that Tess is somehow responsible for her fate…The narration is everywhere buttressed by words such as ‘doomed’, ‘destined’, and ‘fated.’ But the critical linking is never made and one remains uncertain about why Tess’s fate is inevitable”
    3. Raymond Williams- (talking about the country people)- “between custom and education, between work and ideas, between love of place and experience of change”

    Gatsby critics….
    1. A. E Dyson- “Tom’s restlessness is an arrogant assertiveness seeking to evade in bluster the deep uneasiness of self-knowledge. His hypocrisy and lack of human feeling make him the most unpleasant character in the book, but he is also, when it comes to the point, one of the sanest”
    2. “Faith can still remove sizeable molehills, but is absolutely powerless when it comes to mountains. The ultimate romantic affirmation, “I’ll always love you alone” cannot be brought to life: certainly not in the waste land; not when people like Daisy, and Gatsby himself, are involved”
    3.”“Life is essentially a cheat and its conditions are those of defeat … the redeeming things are not happiness and pleasure…but the deeper satisfactions that come out of struggle.” F. Scott Fitzgerald

    🙂

  14. Amy Pollard says:

    Amy Pollard
    Hello Hello!

    Gatsby – ‘ It is one of those novels that so richly evoke the texture of their time’ – Matthew Bruccoli
    ‘ So much of the meaning in Gatsby comes out of imagery, it’s texture and the complexity of it’s motives’ – Harold Bloom
    ‘ Nick is to be respected for his moral concern’ – R.W.Stallman
    ‘ It seems to me that no American novel comes closer than Gatsby to suppressing literacy artistry and none tells us more about ourselves’ – Jonathon Yardley.

    Rapture:
    ‘ with a lot of artists, the mystique is to baffle their readership, she never does this her aim is to communicate’ – Lavina Greenlaw

    Lavina Greenlaw – ‘ She was the first poet to push language and form and their limits and tensions to articulate that bankrupt and distorted era’

    ‘ Even at the early stages of the affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy ‘ – Kate Kellaway
    ‘ Love is an extremely only rivaled by death and desire is almost a death wish ‘ – Kate Kellaway.
    ‘ It draws on tradition, but is very up to date’ – Margaret Reynolds
    ‘ The form that dominates rapture is the sonnet, the magical shape so suited to reflections of love’ Ruth Padel.
    ‘ Rapture is as intimate as a diary’ Kate Kellaway
    ‘ Pain has more character than the person woo has inflicted it ‘ -Kate Kellaway.

    Tess:
    ‘ from the time of the book’s publication, the question of whether Tess was raped or seduced has divided critics’ – Kristen Brady.

    ‘ Cast out by a morally hypocritical society Tess identifies most strongly with the natural world and it is here that Hardy’s textual lyricism comes into it’s own’ – Elizabeth Day

    ‘ By placing a moral evaluation of Tess at the very beginning of the novel Hardy invites the readers to judge and evaluate Tess as well’ – Penny Bournelha.

    ‘ Tess is an example of the destructive effect of society’s pressure and conventions upon a nature naturally pure and unstained’ – Simon Gattreu

    ‘ The novel’s concentration on Tess’s trapped existence be comes so intense and unremitting’ – Dale Kramer.

  15. Lucy Kemp says:

    Hello! 🙂

    The Great Gatsby:
    1.“It is an exquisitely crafted tale of America in the 1920s.” – A Cornell – 1925.
    2.”Fantastic proof that chivalry, of a sort, is not dead.” – Life Magazine – May 7, 1925.
    3.“Fitzgerald seems to have had a brilliant understanding of lives that are corrupted by greed and incredibly sad and unfulfilled. The novel is a product of its generation–with one of American literature’s most powerful characters in the figure of Jay Gatsby, who is urbane and world-weary. Gatsby is really nothing more than a man desperate for love.” – James Topham.

    Tess of the d’Urbervilles:
    1.“The hardships that Tess faces in her life and the double standards of society by which she is measured find resonance even today.”
    2.“The thing most likely to trouble a modern reader of Hardy’s novel is Tess’s passivity: her willingness to absorb without a struggle the dreadful consequences of the cruelty, selfishness and stupidity of the men who long to possess her. Her fatalism, her apparent acceptance, her dumb, almost animal, endurance make her seem like a victim. But though her fate is heart-breaking, in an important sense she is not a victim.” – Jane shilling – daily mail – 2008.
    3.“Tess starts out as an emblem of innocence, a pretty country girl who delights in dancing on the village green. Yet the world conspires against her. Seduced by a duplicitous older man, her virtue is destroyed when she bears his child and her future life is shaped by a continual suffering for crimes that are not her own.” – Elizabeth Day – The Guardian – 2008.
    4.“Cast out by a morally hypocritical society, Tess identifies most strongly with the natural world and it is here that Hardy’s textual lyricism comes into its own.” Elizabeth Day – The Guardian – 2008.

    Rapture – carol Ann Duffy:
    1.“Rapture is sad, but not bleak. It draws on tradition, but is very up to date. Duffy is a poet who surprises with images that are precisely funny.” – Margaret Reynolds – the guardian – 2006.
    2.“…the poems counteract casualness with deliberation. They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy.” – Kate kellaway – the guardian – 2005.

  16. Rachel Templeton says:

    Hello all!!

    Great Gatsby Critics:
    1. “Gatsby is somewhat vague. The reader’s eyes can never quite focus upon him, his outlines are dim” – Thomas Flanagan
    2. “Fitzgerald was an impressionistic realist who evoked, by means of style and tone, the emotions or sensory responses associated with places and events. ” – Matthew J. Bruccoli

    Tess Critics:
    1. “It is only to be fully appreciated perhaps by a woman, in its intimate and profound interpretation of the woman’s heart through the pure and beautiful heroic Tess … done to death, not by slanderous tongues but the tyranny of man, of nature.” – From the Pall Mall Gazette 1891
    2. “Hardy utilised Angel and Alec to represent the extremes of manhood in his context, and so the self-righteous intellectual and the wealthy opportunist conspire to destroy the visionary essence of a woman.” – Mimi Lu 2007

    Rapture Critics:
    “Rapture can seem to beg too much indulgence of the reader, relying on its rhythms and a sense of recognition to carry it through.” – Frances Leviston
    “The poems counteract casualness with deliberation. They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy.” – Kate Kellaway (The Observer)
    “She knows the end of the story, but she also knows what will survive.” – Magaret Reynolds (The Guardian)
    🙂

  17. Shannon Jackson says:

    Evening, thought I might grace you with some critics 🙂

    The Great Gatsby:
    “Fitzgerald’s writing just feels the way we imagine the age to have felt – glittering and gay, yet always grounded in a grim past, transient present and a looming future. ” -01/27/2008,Tom (Sorry that’s all the info I could find on this critic!)

    “Nick is the medium by which the voices are heard and, as principal speaker in the text, he serves as a translator of the dreams and social ambitions of the people who surround him. But the dilemma for readers of the novel is how to interpret Nick’s voice: is he genuinely critical of Gatsby’s romantic imagination and the culture that informed it, or does his suave talk conceal an essentially conservative nature?” – Janet Giltrow

    Tess:
    “The plot of Tess of the d’Urbervilles turns on a succession of accidents and coincidences. Again and again Tess’s tragic fate depends on some disastrous mischance. One or two of these may seem possible—after all is full of mischance—but heaped on top of each other they produce a final effect of gross improbability. Does this matter? Are we to see them as blemishes on an otherwise fine novel; or are they such a pervasive part of it that they must either condemn it or form part of its success.”

    “Tess of the d’Urbervilles is rich in its involvement with several themes and issues. Like most other Hardy novels, rural life is a prominent issue in the story. The hardships and drudgery of rustic lifestyle are explored fully through the travel and work expereinces of Tess. Religious orthodoxy and social values are questioned in the novel. The issue of fate vs. freedom of action is another important aspect of Tess of the d’Urbervilles. While the main storyline may sound fatalistic, Hardy does not miss the opportunity to point out that the darkest of tragedies could be prevented by human action and consideration.” – Esther Lombardi

    Rapture:
    “Duffy is a very brave poet. Only pop songs are braver in their use of repetition, and in “Finding the Words” she succeeds in making an ordinary “I love you” into something extraordinary. Only gameshow hosts are braver in their use of puns.” – Margaret Reynolds, Saturday 7 January 2006

    “Rapture is intimate as a diary – except that it is free of particularity, of identifying characteristics about the lover, who could be anyone but is not quite everyone.” – Kate Kellaway, Sunday 9 October 2005

  18. Jonquil says:

    Critical Reception
    Gatsby:
    Fitzgerald exposes the darkest aspects of human nature in Gatsby—from the fragile, ephemeral nature of dreams to the inability of wealth to provide any sort of lasting happiness—and this resonated with critics of the 1950s. – http://salempress.com/Store/samples/critical_insights/gatsby_reception.htm
    Critic Arthur Mizener, writing in the late 1990s, commented about the accessibility of Gatsby, since Fitzgerald so masterfully “makes the fate of his chosen people an image of the fate of Western society” (Mizener 1999, 93). –
    http://salempress.com/Store/samples/critical_insights/gatsby_reception.htm
    “his story contained material that put it well outside the moral boundaries” – Hook, Andrew. 2002. F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Literary Life. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

    Tess:
    “his bleak and open treatment of sexuality and marriage caused such an outrage among the puritanical Victorian public” – “Literature at the Turn of the Century (1890 – 1918)”
    Tess of the d’Urberville is a tragedy. The novel details the loss of innocence and the ultimate destruction of a young girl. – Esther Lombardi
    According to a Marxist interpretation, Tess’s fall is basically economic. It is not just due to Alec’s exploitation, which is recoverable – http://www.crossref-it.info/textguide/Tess-of-the-d'Urbervilles/11/1286
    Rapture:
    “These poems are intent as an obsessed lover upon their subject, returning to the same sacred images, waxing and waning” – Frances Leviston (Review)
    “it becomes even clearer that Duffy is operating on a different plane, ahistorical, archetypal, where ‘moon’ and ‘rose’ and ‘kiss’ come clear of the abuses of tradition to be restored to the poet’s lexicon, as the things of the world are restored to the lover.” – John Stammers (Duffy’s contemporary and literary friend)

  19. Aimee Pascoe says:

    Afternoon:)

    RAPTURE
    1. ‘By contrast, the poems counteract casualness with deliberation. They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy. These are poems that will be recognised by anyone who has ever been sexually obsessed to a self-punishing degree’- Kate Kellaway- The Observer 2005.
    2. ‘Duffy is a very brave poet. Only pop songs are braver in their use of repetition, and in “Finding the Words” she succeeds in making an ordinary “I love you” into something extraordinary’
    3. ‘There is a danger, in replicating love’s single-mindedness, of replicating also the boredom felt by those who do not share the rhapsodist’s feelings, and Rapture accordingly can seem to beg too much indulgence of the reader, relying on its rhythms and a sense of recognition to carry it through.’ Francis Leveston

    GATSBY
    1. ‘The Great Gatsby captures brilliantly the American dream in a time when it had descended into decadence’ James Topham- About.com
    2. ‘With sensitive insight and keen psychological observation, Fitzgerald discloses in these people a meanness of spirit, carelessness and absence of loyalties. He cannot hate them, for they are dumb in their insensate selfishness, and only to be pitied’ Edwin Clarke- New York Times.
    3. “It is humour, irony, ribaldry, pathos and loveliness….A curious book, a mystical, glamorous story of today.” Edwin C. Clark, The New York Times

    TESS
    1. ‘Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles is a book of conflicting ideas and possibilities. From the clash between a person’s ideal destiny and the reality of his or her life to the tensions between theology, philosophy and the natural world, Hardy sets all the things that make us human on a collision course in his tragic heroine’s story.’ Ann Morgan
    2. ‘This is one of the best works of Hardy. The hardships that Tess faces in her life and the double standards of society by which she is measured find resonance even today. The story will touch a deep chord in all who read it. We are drawn to the plot and the characters in such a way that we sympathize with Tess, are angered by Angel and abhor Alec and feel their tribulations like our own.

  20. Rachel Sparrow says:

    Tezza D:
    Zeng Jia- ‘He [Hardy] insisted on writing about society as it was ,making no ornament of it as those blindly optimist writers were doing.’
    Irving Howe- ”Like the greatest characters in literature, Tess lives beyond the final pages of the book as a permanent citizen of the imagination… Tess is that rare creature in literature: goodness made interesting.’ (Howe clearly doesn’t agree when we tell Tess to man the hell up.)

    Gatsby:
    Edwin Clark(1925)- ‘A curious book, a mystical, glamourous story of today.’
    David O’Rourke- ‘Nick is considered quite reliable, basically honest, and ultimately changed by his contact with Gatsby.’

    Rapture:
    Margaret Reynolds(Guardian)- ‘Rapture is much riskier than any of Duffy’s earlier works. It maintains an attention to detail even while shaping the larger arc of the story across 51 poems.’
    Kate Kellaway- ‘By contrast, the poems counteract casualness with deliberation. They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy.’ (Oh hello essay title!)

  21. Sophie Payne says:

    TESS/HARDY
    1. ‘…Tess was more a passive victim of male aggression and idealization than an active participant in her own disastrous fate.’ (Kristen Brady 1986)
    2. ‘It has been suggested that the narrator derives an almost sadistic pleasure from Tess’ suffering…’ (Kristen Brady 1986)
    3. ‘…Hardy’s feelings for Tess were strong, perhaps stronger than for any of his other invented personages.’ (J Miller)

    GATSBY/FITZGERALD
    1. ‘…Gatsby is a product of visionary romanticism…’ (Harold Bloom)
    2.’…Less pretentious than his previous work, TGG achieves much more […] he has (Fitzgerald has) a maturity that transcends the merely aesthetic, that reveals itself also in the moral implications of the fable.’ (Harold Bloom)
    3. ‘Gatsby is neither pathetic nor tragic, because as a quester he meets his appropriate fate […] his death preserves his greatness, and justifies the title of the story, a title that is anything from ironic..’ (Jay Gatsby – Harold Bloom 2004)

    RAPTURE/DUFFY
    1. ‘Rapture is intimate as a diary – except that it is free of particularity, of identifying characteristics about the lover, who could be anyone but is not quite everyone.’ (The Observer Review – Kate Kellaway October 2005)
    2. ‘Rapture is sad, but not bleak. It draws on tradition, but is very up to date.’ (The Guardian review – Magaret Reynolds January 2006)

  22. Georgina Beechey says:

    Hi Everyone!!… Better get theis down before tomorrows deadline!!! (apparently i have to have the starts of my AQA bacc essay too!, ill do that later!!)
    Anyway: CRITICAL RESPONSES:
    (my god, where do you look for all these critics!! I can hardly find anything! This sucks!!)

    GREAT GATSBY
    Bryant Mangum (virginia commonwealth university)
    “The simple love story was merely the foundation for a narrative structure that would accommodate Fitzgerald’s ideas about irreconcilable contradictions within the American Dream and ultimately about the ideal quest itself. Young Jay Gatsby, through the discipline of Benjamin Franklin-like charts and schedules, has prepared himself to receive all that America has to offer and believes naively that he can have the embodiment of it, the wealthy Louisville debutante Daisy Fay, the only “nice” girl he has ever known, if he can but find the currency to buy his way into her life. It is Nick, the middle-class everyman without particular allegiance to either the privileged or working class, who has enough objectivity to comprehend the awful irony that Gatsby’s dream has been futile from the beginning: he will never be accepted into the world of old money that Daisy could never leave.”
    A pretty good website http://www.people.vcu.edu/~bmangum/gatsby.htm

    TESS OF THE D’URBERVILLES
    Lim Jane
    “a critic in Saturday Review, while identifying Tess as the most true to life character in the novel, found the other characters “stagy” or “farcical.” He objected to what he saw as Hardy’s excessive concern with descriptions of Tess’s appealing physical attributes and deemed the story improbable”
    Martin Seymour-Smith
    “Tess was a woman who stabbed her husband. Then, as now, in the eyes of most judges, there is one law for men who kill their wives, and quite another for women who kill their husbands.” For Seymour-Smith, Tess and her pitiful treatment by the men in her life are at the core of discovering the true importance of the work. “The question raised by the novel is this: what would a woman be if she were released from male oppression and allowed to be herself?”
    http://youaresuchayaro.wordpress.com/2010/08/03/critical-analysis-tess-of-the-durbervilles/

    RAPTURE
    Kate Kellaway (The Observer) (9th October 2005)
    “Rapture is intimate as a diary – except that it is free of particularity, of identifying characteristics about the lover, who could be anyone but is not quite everyone.”
    “Love is an extremity, rivalled only by death. It is more often ‘glamorous hell’ than heaven. And desire is almost a death wish. ‘If I was dead, and my bones adrift like dropped oars … ”
    Frances Leviston
    “There is a danger, in replicating love’s single-mindedness, of replicating also the boredom felt by those who do not share the rhapsodist’s feelings, and Rapture accordingly can seem to beg too much indulgence of the reader, relying on its rhythms and a sense of recognition to carry it through”

    Hope these are some use to anyone!!

  23. Maisie says:

    Gatsby quotes:
    NUMBER 1: “Fitzgerald gives us a meditation on some of this country’s most central ideas, themes, yearnings and preoccupations: the quest for a new life, the preoccupation with class, the hunger for riches.” – Jonathan Yardley for The Washington Post (2007).

    NUMBER 2: “Nick Carraway is to be respected for his moral concern – East Vs. West, they are opposites but cannot stay rigid, blurred or confused in identity patterns.” Gatsby and the Hole in Time, R. W Stallman, 1955

    Tess quotes:
    NUMBER 1: ‘Her sexuality is above all provocative: she is a temptress to the convert Alec, an Eve to Angel Clare’. Penny Boumelha, of Tess in Thomas Hardy and Women: ‘Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form’ (1982)

    NUMBER 2: ‘Hardy … suggests that life is characterised by ethereality or abstract values and emphasises the daunting rigour of maintaining life.’ ‘Thomas Hardy, Tess of the d’Urbervilles’, Dale Kramer, 1991

    Rapture quotes
    NUMBER 1: “a coherent and passionate collection, very various in all its unity of purpose. In the language and circumstances of our day and age, it re-animates and continues a long tradition of the poetry of love and loss” David Constantine
    NUMBER 2: “This is an elemental love – it could belong to any time were it not for the occasional contemporary accessories: a little black dress (metaphorical) and a mobile phone (actual).” Kate Kellaway (2005)

  24. Georgina Welsh says:

    On Gatsby:
    1)The novel ‘sends the American dream through a shredder of greed, carelessness, dishonesty and false hope’ according to Sarah Kaufman of The Washington Post.
    2) On symbolism and motif; ‘The green light, which carries meaning at every level of the story–as Gatsby’s go-ahead sign, as money, as the “green breast of the new world,” as springtime–is strategically placed in chapters one, five, and nine. The eyes of T.J. Eckleburg “brood on over the solemn dumping ground,” which is the wasteland that America has become, and their empty gaze is there at crucial moments such as that of Tom’s visit to his mistress in the Valley of Ashes and before and after her death, a reminder that God has been replaced by fading signs of American materialism. The sustained good driver/bad driver metaphor, through which Fitzgerald hints at standards of morality and immorality, is evident at virtually every turn of the novel: Daisy runs over Myrtle and will not stop to accept responsibility; Jordan Baker (whose name combines two brands of automobile from the 1920’s) wears her careless driving as a badge of honor; Owl Eyes, the drunken philosopher in Gatsby’s library who shows up at his funeral to informally eulogize him as “the poor son of a bitch,” is involved in an accident leaving Gatsby’s party. With these symbols and motifs, Fitzgerald imparted, in the words of his editor, Maxwell Perkins, “a sort of sense of eternity.” – Bryant Mangum of Virginia Commonwealth University. (Everything else I have found on Gatsby appears to have been states already ^^)
    On Tess:
    1) As a character, ‘Her womanly softness does not keep her from clear judgments, even toward her beloved Angel she can sometimes be blunt…’-Irving Howe, Thomas Hardy, 1967.(Hmm, I’m not sure what he means by this!Why would a woman’s softness cloud her judgement!?Growl…).
    2) ‘At least twice in the book Tess seems to Hardy and the surrounding characters larger than life, but in all such instances it is not to make her a goddess or a metaphor, it is to understand her embattled womanliness.’-Irving Howe, Thomas Hardy, 1967. This might link to narrative response, how Hardy manufactures Tess’ sexuality/character in the novel.
    3) On Alec and Angel, Albert J. LaValley in Twentieth Century Interpretations of Tess of the d’Urbervilles, 1969, described them as ‘the cruel bourgeois and the disinherited intellectual: both are without roots, both show a split between thought and feeling, both lack an adequate image of selfhood’ and hence, they both misunderstand the countrified milk maid!
    4) On colour as a symbol: ‘there is one colour which literary catches the eye, and is meant to catch it, throughout the book. This colour is red, the colour of blood, which is associated with Tess from first to last. It dogs her, disturbs her, destroys her. She is full of it, she spills it, she loses it. Watching Tess’ life we begin to see that her destiny is nothing more or less than the colour red.’- Tony Tanner, “Colour and Movement in Tess of the d’Urbervilles” in R. P. Draper’s Hardy- The Tragic Novels, 1975.
    On Rapture:
    1) According to Frances Lecviston of Christ Church College, Oxford-‘These poems are intent as an obsessed lover upon their subject, returning to the same sacred images, waxing and waning through all the stages of infatuation from the disbelieving first flush of the opening poem, ‘You’, to ‘the death of love’ in the closing poem, ‘Over’.’
    2) In reference to Duffy’s allusions to past poems (by Shakespeare for example) in ‘Rapture’, Margaret Reynolds,The Guardian, (Saturday 7 January 2006) said that ‘It draws on tradition, but is very up to date’. She goes on to say that ‘Duffy is a poet who surprises with images that are precisely funny. In “Text” the speaker, anxiously looking for secret messages from the beloved, is described tending “the mobile now / like an injured bird”.’- I didn’t actually find this funny at all, but we’re all entitled to our own opinion…(!?)
    3) M. Reynolds concluced by asserting that ‘Duffy’s most persuasive gifts are her unashamedly lyrical voice and her distinctively intellectual attention to repetition and wordplay’.

  25. Beth Smith says:

    TESS:
    1. “the scene of sexual violence, Tess and the female subject all appear as radically unreadable figures” – Ellen Rooney
    2. “Even Tess, considered so modern in its day, has a story which, when peeled of its realistic trappings, reveals itself as a regular folk-tale tragedy” – David Cecil
    3. “Tess is curiously ‘absent’ from most of the key events in the novel; from the death of Prince, to the strawberry scene, the night in the Chase, Angel’s return and her capture at Stonehenge, she is asleep or in a trance” – Kaja Silverman

    GATSBY:
    1. “Fitzgerald discloses in these people a meanness of spirit, carelessness and absence of loyalties” – Edwin Clark
    2. “Nick who transcribes these accounts; how much he may be requoting his sources and how much translating them – transforming, embellishing, amplifying, rewording – we can never know” – Tony Tanner

    RAPTURE:
    1. “They reveal the way in which, even at the early stages of an affair, doom may creep in and attach itself to joy.” Kate Kellaway 2005.
    2. “Poetry and prayer are very similar. I write quite a lot of sonnets and I think of them almost as prayers: short and memorable, something you can recite.” Carol Ann Duffy

  26. Anna Chapell says:

    Tess of the D’Urbervilles
    1. “What goes on here is the idea that Tess might have given in to Alec, that the distress she suffers is shame rather than the trauma of a victim.” The Independent, Robert Hanks, 15th September 2008
    2. “The reader, or at least me, gets involved in this book. Tess’ plight is overwhelming at times.” Author unknown, 17th April 2004
    3. The author’s life span seems somehow even vaster than it was, a match for the cosmically long view Hardy took of his fictional characters, fate’s playthings set in motion on a “blighted star.” The New York Times, Thomas Mallon, 28th January 2007
    The Great Gatsby
    1. “Both boisterous and tragic, it animates this new novel by Mr. Fitzgerald with whimsical magic and simple pathos that is realized with economy and restraint.” Edwin Clark, The New York Times, 19th April 1925
    2. “On the page, by contrast, in astonishingly beautiful, layered prose, what Scott Fitzgerald manages to do is to replicate some of the mystery of what it is to be human, and that can only properly be experienced inside your head.” The Independent, Alan Glynn, 16th September 2011
    3. “Like much of Fitzgerald’s prose, it is neat and well–crafted. Fitzgerald seems to have had a brilliant understanding of lives that are corrupted by greed and incredibly sad and unfulfilled. The novel is a product of its generation–with one of American literature’s most powerful characters in the figure of Jay Gatsby, who is urbane and world-weary. Gatsby is really nothing more than a man desperate for love.” Review of ‘The Great Gatsby, James Topham, date unknown.
    Rapture
    1. “Pain has more character than the person who has inflicted it.” Kate Kellaway, The Observer, 9th October 2005
    2. “Gone is the sharp sense of history, the wry snap of modern life, the distinct yet palatable feminism; all those competing stories she delighted in telling have dissolved, it seems, in the single most important story of all, that of the human love affair.” http://www.towerpoetry.org.uk, Frances Leviston, date unknown
    3. “Rapture is sad, but not bleak. It draws on tradition, but is very up to date. Duffy is a poet who surprises with images that are precisely funny.” The Guardians, Margaret Reynolds, 7th January 2006

  27. Vivien Goddard-Stephens says:

    Gatsby:

    – “It evokes not only the ambiance of the jazz-age search for the American dream of wealth and happiness, but also the larger questions of fading traditional values in the face of increasing materialism and cynicism.” – http://www.enotes.com/great-gatsby-criticism/great-gatsby-f-scott-fitzgerald – no publishing name given.
    – “no more than a glorified anecdote” – H.L. Mencken (Mizener 1963, 2) – http://salempress.com/Store/samples/critical_insights/gatsby_reception.htm
    – “interest centered on Fitzgerald’s preoccupation with failure and the difficulties of living in an industrialized “modern” world” – (Tanselle and Bryer, 182, 190)

    Tess:

    – “Tess of the d’Urbervilles was a great success, marred only by controversy over its frank treatment of sex and its pessimistic view of life.” – http://www.enotes.com/tess-of-the-durbervilles/critical-overview – no publishing name given.
    – “By giving increased prominence to the villainy of both Alec and Angel, Hardy was able to half suggest that Tess was more a passive victim of male aggression and idealisation than an active participant in her own disastrous fate.” – Kristin Brady 1986 – http://www.morelearning.net/KS5/Tess/Tess%20critics%201.pdf
    – “The author’s undeniably erotic fascination with [Tess] takes the form of a visual preoccupation with her physical presence, and it has even been suggested that the narrator derives an almost sadistic pleasure from Tess’ suffering, that he shares in part the distorted views of her held by both Alec and Angel, and that he in some sense does himself violate her with his male voice and eye,” – as above.

    Rapture:

    – “draws on tradition, but is very up to date” – Margaret Reynolds – the Guardian – http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/jan/07/featuresreviews.guardianreview19
    – “is sad, but not bleak” – as above.
    – “ a combination of intimate and teasingly anonymous” – Kate Kellaway – The Observer – http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/oct/09/poetry.features

  28. Jodie Thompson says:

    This is HAAAAAAAAARD.

    Rapture:
    “Rapture, the latest collection of poetry from Carol Ann Duffy, is an extended rhapsody on a love affair, ushering the reader from first spark to full flame to final, messy conflagration. Cliche is overturned and hackneyed phrases rubbed clean “till they gleamed in my palm/I love you, I love you, I love you/as though they were new”.
    The passion on its pages has a way of spilling into the outside world, too.” – Xan Brooks, The Guardian, 2006.
    “The poems are combination of intimate and teasingly anonymous. Pain has more character than the person who has inflicted it.” – Kate Kellaway, The Observer, 2005.

    The Great Gatsby:
    F.R.Leavis: Great work of fiction was both morally significant and artistically accomplished.
    Stallman: Nick Carraway is to be respected for his moral concern.
    Dan Jacobson: Gatsby and Daisy’s relationship had signs of insignificance in the novel.

    Tess:
    “Early critics attacked Hardy for the novel’s subtitle, “A Pure Woman,” arguing that Tess could not possibly be considered pure. They also denounced his frank—for the time—depiction of sex, criticism of organized religion, and dark pessimism.” – eNotes.com

  29. Dena Bahiraey says:

    The Great Gatsby:
    1. “The Great Gatsby has an undeserved reputation as a lucky book, both in terms of its composition and reception” (The Observer, March 2000, Adam-Mars Jones)
    2. “You’ll find the language weighted and resonant and the imagery quite simply unforgettable, with its poetic elevation of the quotidian to the level of the profoundly philosophical” (The Independent, Alan Glynn, September 2011)

    Tess of the D’ubervilles:
    3. “Tess of the d’Urbervilles was a great success, marred only by controversy over its frank treatment of sex and its pessimistic view of life” (www.enotes.com)
    4. “In Tess of the d’Urbervilles, Thomas Hardy targets the Victorian values of nobility right from the title of his novel. (www.classiclit.about.com)

    The Rapture Anthology/Carol Ann Duffy:
    5. ”The poems are wonderful. But before forming any judgment of them, I found myself developing a hostility to the love object: the casualness, the ‘strolling’ into the life – even that lucky laugh” (Kate Kellaway, The Observer, October 2005)
    6. “Rapture is sad, but not bleak. It draws on tradition, but is very up to date. Duffy is a poet who surprises with images that are precisely funny” (Margaret Reynolds, The Guardian, January 2006)

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