Literature Unit 2 poetry – Relationships

Y11 – extend your understanding and develop your skills of analysis by having a go at the following:

Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)

Sample section of an A* answer for ‘AO1 Ghazal’:

In teh second stanza of the poem the writer uses the idea o fpoetry itself to explore the realtionship. The simple idea is in the first line, with the lover being the ‘rhyme’, so being the leader, while ‘I’ is merely a refrain, following and repeating. The instruction not ot ‘hang’, followed by ‘come’ suggests the speaker is really in control, though, and she will follow, ‘come too’, when the lover does as he is instructed by giving a ‘cue’.

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32 Responses to Literature Unit 2 poetry – Relationships

  1. Maddie Bond says:

    In ‘Hour’ the writer provokes the feeling of true love between two people, ‘spend it not on flowers/or wine, but the whole of a summer sky and a grass ditch’. The use of ‘a summer sky’ and ‘grass ditch’ provokes the feeling from the reader that is doesn’t matter where you are, but rather who you’re with as these gifts are unconventional lover’s gifts. However, in ‘Ghazal’ the love is portrayed as more one sided, ‘- hawk to my shadow, moth to my flame – pursue me?’. The use of the question mark after ‘pursue me’ displays that she is seeking approval for him to pursue her, as if she does not feel he wants to. Also, throughout the whole poem she is always metaphorically the least dominant figure and so the reader emotively feels that she is the less dominant figure of the relationship.

  2. Rachel Ward says:

    In “Ghazal” Khalvati uses several phrases with dual meaning to portray multiple ideas to the reader. “if I am the laurel leaf” this can be perceived as the girl believing her lover can make everything bad about her good, or it can be interpreted as showing how much she wants to be part of his greatness. In “Hour” Duffy also explores the idea of dual meanings. “gold, gold, gold from straw”. This conveys to the reader that anything can be made perfect through love. However, Duffy is referring to the fairytale of Rumpelstiltskin and if the reader is familiar with the story it can add a more sinister tone to the poem.

  3. Iona Templeton says:

    In ‘Ghazal’ the writer says “the heart is peirced, tattoo me” which provkes the feelings of love because it gives the image of a heart with an arrow going through it tattoo which symbolises love between two people. Also the fact that a tattoo is a perminant mark which suggests the love is forever. Also, throughout the poem she is seen by the reader as the least dominant figure in the relationship. However in ‘Hour’ the writers portrayes love by saying “For thousands of seconds we kiss;” by saying “thousands of seconds” instead of minutes shows that they are trying to slow down time because they are enjoying each others company. The alliteration emphasies the length of the moment as well as stressing “kiss”.

  4. Lucy B says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

    In the poem “Hour” the poet presents love with the description of “time’s beggar”. The love talked about in this poem appears to be metaphysical and anti-capitalist; the poet redefines wealth as love and time rather than as money and gold. Carol Ann Duffy uses two myths, “The Midas Light” and “Rumplestiltskin”. Both of these myths are based on wealth and the misery it brings to highlight the point that the wealth presented in the poem is intangible. From reading line 1, the reader can see that love is dependent on time; “loves times beggar” but time isn’t dependant on love. Time will go on regardless of whether love is present.
    In the poem “Ghazal” by Mimi Khalvati, love is presented in a seductive and idiomatic manner. The poem also presents love as a permanent mark; “tattoo me”. A tattoo is there forever just like love. In the point of view of the author, the lovers complete one another. From lines 15 and 16 “If I rise in the east as you die in the west, die for my sake, my love, every night renew me,” show this as well as a slight innuendo and reciprocity from the lover to the beloved.

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)
    The feelings of Mimi Khalvati, the writer of “Ghazal” are slightly erotic and desperate. The poem is presented by the word “I” which indicates a personal tone and therefore we can begin to relate to the feelings of the poet. The alliteration in line two of “r” links “rhyme” and “refrain” and hence the 2 lovers together. This shows that the writer feels strong for lovers to always be together.
    Elizabeth Barrett Browning, the writer of Sonnet 43 has very deep feelings that come across as childlike when read out loud because of the structure of the poem. It had an iambic pentameter and the phrase “let me count the ways” dominates the poem. The idea of counting seems childlike and as if Browning is trying to convince herself to love her beloved. The repetition suggests herself trying to convince herself.

  5. Olivia Perry says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’

    A way in which love is presented in the poem ‘Hour’ is not just in the content, but also in the layout. Carol Ann Duffy has written the poem in the style of a sonnet, which is a typical form representing love, of which Shakespeare wrote in. Not only does the layout present love, but also the stereotypical objects associated with love, such as ‘flowers and wine’, which plays a constant role throughout the poem. The effect of this, is to emphasize the fact of which reality plays in modern relationships, as the majority of them all, are influenced on the inanimate objects recieved.

    ‘For here we are millionairres, backhanding the night.’ This quote here is insinuating that the lovers try to bribe time with money, as in the poem, time is seen as powerful, and love has to beg from it, although time is capable of being affected by love and the wealth of love, however not strong enough to stop time, which can be seen as greed, as the lovers want more and more of what they can not have.

    In comparisson to ‘Hour’, Mimi Khalvati’s poem ‘Ghazal’, focuses more on the dominance of the relationship, and how love is shown theoretically through the actions of her partner. An example of this would be the quote, ‘use your charm, weave a spell and subdue me’. This imagery effect, suggests that he is the leader, and she is merely the refrain, bringing out the best in her and preventing her negativity to errupt, with his charm.

  6. Hannah-Lydia Thompson says:

    In the poem ‘Ghazal’ writer Khalvati makes use of many metaphorical scenarios to illustrate love as yin and yang. “You are the rhyme and I the refrain” and “I rise in the east as you die in the west” are typical examples of this. ‘East’ and ‘West’ are precisely opposite each other on a compass, yet one would not exist in the same significant way without the other, it would not be balanced. This portrays to the readers the illusion that dependency exists with love, and that love, in fact, is not really love without one person being slightly more dependent on the other.
    In ‘Hour’ however, authour Duffy compares love with features of fairytales. “Love spins gold, gold, gold from straw” highlights to the readers that love has the ability to make anything worthless – the straw – into something considered valuable and special – the gold. However, as love is being compared to the fairytale ‘The Midas Light’ Duffy also emphasizes that although love can make everything glitter, sometimes all that glitters, is not gold, and that love is a myth to some people, but very real to others.

  7. Hollie Chown says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

    In the poem Hour, Carol Ann Duffy illuminates the value of her love using imagery of precious objects by referring to the subject’s appearance, ‘Your hair like treasure on the ground’. This illustrates the beauty and purity of the person, presenting obsessive characteristics from the speaker. The writer also uses mythology to display love, ‘Midas light/turning limbs to gold’ which at first glance, can be interpreted as romantic as gold is expensive. However, a subtle, underlying sinister meaning is displayed, suggesting that love can be an irreversible curse when wanting too much of it.
    In comparison, Mimi Khalvati uses song-writing techniques in Ghazal to explore the intense feeling of love she feels, ‘If you are the rhyme and I the refrain’. This not only continues the use of the title, which is an Arabic poetic form; perhaps used to portray the fluency and a connection between two people, but also illustrates the idea that she would repetitively come back to her lover as she is the less dominant of the two.

  8. Dimitra M says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)
    The writers in both “Ghazal” and “Hour” use different poetic structures to present the theme of love. Carol Ann Duffy opts for the traditional form of a sonnet, and bases “Hour” loosely on Shakespeare’s sonnets, incorporating rhyming couplets and half rhymes into each stanza. The half rhymes “Hair” and “here” suggest the idea that Duffy feels her relationship with her lover has a flaw (an imbalance) which they try to ignore. Mimi Khalvati, on the other hand, uses the more subtle Arabic form which explores the more varied aspects of love. A repetitive rhythm offers the illusion of seduction, but Khalvati leads the reader to explore the concept of relationships and possible outcomes to situations. “If you are the rhyme and I the refrain” uses assonance within the poem, and illuminates the love that couple share for each other as they both connect with each other.

  9. Emma Hosking says:

    Both Duffy and Khalvati use metaphors and flattery to portray love and infatuation with their other half, in ‘Ghazal’ Khalvati seems to make herself subservant ‘What shape should I take to marry your own’ as if saying how can I change myself to fit you perfectly, she also lists stereotypical pairings ‘moth to my flame’ hoping to be the alluring attraction her lover can’t resist. Similarly in ‘Hour’ Duffy uses ‘no chandelier can see you better lit’ Duffy is saying that not even jewels, wealth or fame, could make you any more beautiful, or show her real side any better than she is seen there, she wants to avoid the cliches of love and romance.
    It is evident to the reader that Duffy is influenced by Shakespeare, as she writes the 14 lines in the form of a traditional love poem a sonnet, proving to the reader that love is in the forefront of her mind -beginning the poem with the word ‘Love’s times beggar’ immediately setting the scene of the poem and also enforcing her Shakespearean influences . Also Khalvati displays love through the structure of the poem, for ‘Ghazal’ itself is the name of an arabic poetic technique of rhyming couplets, that reflect the partnered and balanced relaitionship that she so desires in the poem – ‘Be heaven and Earth to me’, an immensly spiritual and powerful plea.

  10. Jasmine says:

    1. Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’.

    Both Carol Ann Duffy’s ‘Hour’ and Mimi Khalvati’s ‘Ghazal’ portray love as a finite resource, constraining the emotion within a time frame: Duffy implies through her extended metaphor of love as ‘time’s beggar’ that despite how ‘time slows’ each precious moment will always come to a close, whereas Khalvati opts to be accepting of ‘when it ends’ through asking his lover to continue to stand by him as the ‘Shamsuddin to my Rumi’ (i.e. a guide and inspiration to his life’s works). Both underlying viewpoints evoke a sense of oppression in the reader, disheartening them by shattering the idealistic illusion that love is impenetrable by any external forces on the lovers’ relationship with one another. However, the poets’ interpretations of such a relationship differ in mutuality; whereas Duffy’s love is reciprocated throughout via the pronouns of ‘our’ and ‘we’, Khalvati’s fervency follows the expectations of the traditional Ghazal themes and is clearly unrequited as he vainly pleads to the subject of the poem through idiomatic metaphors, such as ‘weave a spell and subdue me’, to return his overwhelming sensations of desire. Overall, ‘Ghazal’s idiomatic references to the likes of Shamduddin evoke more empathy in the reader than time’s personified ‘hate’ of love made explicit in ‘Hour’ due to the relatable likeness to colloquial speech, presenting love in a more whimsical manner.

    2. Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and ‘Sonnet 43’.

    Both poets exemplify their feelings through the regimented structures of their traditional forms of poetry. Browning’s employment of the Petrarchan sonnet condenses her love into fourteen strictly-governed lines, reinforced by the internal dialogue that responds to the rhetorical question ‘How do I love thee?’ via ‘count[ing] the ways’, each beginning with the anaphora ‘I love thee’. Whereas the first hyperbolic response of ‘to the depth and breadth and height my soul can reach’ conveys a childlike innocence in the poet in its assonance, the spacial metaphor implies a sinister compulsion to quantify her love; despite the ‘soul’ being a seemingly infinite measure, any ‘depth and breadth and height’ shall always be confined and so limits Browning’s love. Contrastingly, Khavlati offers a more expansive depiction of his feelings through the stanzas of his traditional Ghazal form, placing emphasis on each separated statement such as ‘If I am the grass and you the breeze, blow through me’ – the subordinate clause beginning with the verb ‘blow’ stresses the desired progression of emotion from unrequited to fully reciprocated love, an idea that is repeated throughout the poem. Although the points offered may seem clinical in their similarity to succinct bullet-points, in comparison to Browning’s effusive hunk of text the emotion conveyed appears more genuine to the reader as the love portrayed attempts not to quantify but merely to express abstract feelings metaphorically.

  11. Vicky Smith says:

    1) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)
    Both Carol Ann Duffy and Mimi Khalvati both use references to animals to present love in ‘Hours’ and ‘Ghazal’. Duffy states that ‘no jewel hold a candle to the cuckoo spit’, suggesting that something so normally disgusting through the eyes of the average human, can seem beautiful to her. This gives a sense that her partner is perfect and how Duffy idolises her and therefore is unsusceptible to change. In contrast to this, Khalvati states a need of change by using the animal metaphor of ‘if she is a serpent’s tail, use your charm, weave a spell and subdue me.’ This illustrates her urge to subvert reality and for her partner to dictate and control her. However, her use of poetic structure by using a ghazal of ten stanzas of two lines suggests an equal and even impression on the situation which is ironic due to her desperation and desire of her partner to orchestrate the relationship.

    2) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)
    Both Browning and Khalvati use questions to show their feeling of love. Browning’s first line asks ‘How do I love thee?’ Instantly this question is solely about herself and her own emotions, by which she answers with ‘Let me count the ways!’ This conotates confidence in her own feelings or some might see a hint of arrogance in that she offers multiple answers to her own question, also suggesting self-centeredness. The exclamation mark highlights her excitement for the reader to infer her certainty and self-assurance of her answer. In contrast, Khalvati uses a rhetorical question in ‘pursue me?’ to which she does not answer showing an uncertainty as she longs for the man to seek her love. ‘Pursue’ illustrates her want for the man to be the dominant force in their relationship by her want for him to chase her. This is different to Browning where she never speaks of the feelings of her partner, suggesting she is the dominant force in theirs.

  12. Emily Lunnon says:

    a) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’

    Both poets use myths as a device to announce their love for their beloved. Khalvati portrays herself as though she is negligible compared to her lover. ‘If I am the laurel leaf in your crown, you are the arms around my bark, arms that never knew me’. Here, the poet is alluding to Apollo, the Greek god of music and poetry, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne and chased her through the forest. Nature changed Daphne into a laurel tree, which Apollo embraced, taking its branches for a crown and announcing that, just as the evergreen leaves would never die, so his love would last forever. This definitely, sums up what Khalvati is meaning in her poem and how much her beloved means to her.
    Similarly, Duffy has the ability, like King Midas, to turn her lover’s hair, arms and legs golden. ‘Your hair/like treasure on the ground like Midas light/turning your limbs into gold’. These similes are sensual in their description whilst traditional in sonnet content, where poets would exaggerate their lover’s physical characteristics for romantic purposes.
    I believe that both Khalvati and Duffy have used myths very successfully in their poems to portray their everlasting and wondrous love for their beloved.

    b) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′

    Both poets use innuendo as a device to portray their love. In Sonnet 43 it is a little more subtle and gracious. ‘Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight.’ This shows that she just wants to hint as what she does in the evening and that it is only a part of their everyday lives together. Contrastingly, Khalvati suggests that she desires a more physical relationship. ‘Every night renew me’. This has very seductive and erotic imagery. However, as an alternative reading, it could mean that she has some insecurities about herself and that she feels as though she needs to prove her love to him. Furthermore, it could suggest that the love is one sided or unrequited which only increases her desire and need to demonstrate her overpowering and somewhat desperate love for him. Therefore, I believe that Barrett Browning’s calm and controlled suggestions are much more confident and sophisticated.

  13. izzie says:

    1a) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in Ghazal and Hour
    Both poets use natural metaphors and imagery to try and sum up the depths of their love. The poem hour uses the term ‘cuckoo spit’ to describe her love for her partner, and this is an unusual term to use as it is usually seen as unappealing and dull. However, Duffy presents it to evoke a sense that love can make even the dull things in life beautiful, and that beauty is non-materialistic in the eyes of love. Also, her positive mention of ‘a grass ditch’ suggests that true love does not depend on the materialistic aspects, but the naturalistic. In the same way, Ghazal echoes this idea by containing many phrases related to the nature of the world; such as ‘If I am the grass and you the breeze’. This is similar to Hour in a way that it sees the simplest things in life more clearly and is dependent on simplicity; however it also creates a longing sense for simplicity and a natural connection.

    1b) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in Ghazal and Sonnet 42
    Ghazal and Sonnet 43 both use a large amount of repetition, however contrastingly to connotate different levels of love. The anaphora of ‘I love thee’ in sonnet 43 seems child-like and forced, as the protestant tone evokes a sense of insincerity. On the other hand, whereas Ghazal also uses repetition of the word ‘if’, Mimi cleverly incorporates it into a questioning tone, which seems much more sincere and wishful, as if it were a dream. The fact that the question comes first, followed by the solution in the second half of the couplet, suggests that the love is true, however desperate it may sound. Due to the rivalry emotions taking hold of the poem, with words evoking both pain and pleasure, the repetition of the word if creates a steady rhyme and rhythm.

  14. Stacey says:

    a) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’.

    Both poems “Hour” by Carol Ann Duffy and “Ghazal” by Mimi Khalvati portray love as a victim of time. In the poem “Hour”, the poet gives the reader a sense of urgency and anxiety as the couple feel that they don’t have enough time together. Because of this, they feel as if they have to create it, “Love spins gold, gold, gold from straw”. They want to fight time by cheating it, by creating something out of nothing. However, in “Ghazal” the poet seems to have already given up on love. “When it ends” gives the impression that it is inevitable that the relationship will collapse sometime in the future. Unlike in “Hour” the poet doesn’t seem to want to try to make it last. It seems that Khavalti is haunted by a past experience so expects all future relationships to end in the same way. I n comparison, both poems are victims of time and expect time to be their biggest enemy in love. However, Duffy is the more optimistic of the two as she is prepared t0 beat time by creating more of it in order to pre-long her relationship. Whereas, Khalvati has already given up on the future of love by dwelling in the past-time has beaten her.

    b) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′.

    Both poets use special metaphors as a way of extending their feelings love. In ‘Ghazal’ the poet refers to her lover as “heaven and earth” as a way of signifying that her love goes beyond the realms of mortality and lasts an eternity. However, by using the word “heaven” she gives an undertone of what her true feelings of love could be, as heaven is seen as one of the greatest uncertainties about life. She could be insinuating that love is merely a myth created by those who wanted something more in their life. Similarly, in “Sonnet 43” the poet uses a special metaphor of “depth and breadth and height” as a way of expanding her love to the reach of her “soul. However, the phrases are quite mathematical, so has only one true answer, leaving no room for and imagination or emotion. This makes her love seem quite artificial and clinical. Although Browning’s metaphor contradicts its desired meaning it still concentrates on one meaning of true love. Whereas in “Ghazal” the use of the chosen metaphor can give two meanings, one contradicts the other.

  15. ABI says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’

    a) Firstly, both poets use 1st person pronoun to introduce a personal tone to their poems. Ghazal uses “I” and “you the bird” to directly address his beloved, this use of 2nd person pronoun adds a personal and relatable aspect to the poem helping us to understand the writer’s emotions of forbidden love, unrequited love and vulnerability. Carol Anne Duffy uses a personal tone, in Hour, together with alliteration to emphasize when kissing her partner. Also the use of “we” in “for thousands of seconds we kiss” conotates a sense of togetherness and belonging as Duffy is trying to portray that when she is with her loved one that is all that matters. Personally I think that both writers present love well. But Carol Ann Duffy’s use of “we” has a stronger presentation of their love an is more effective to show the reader how they feel, therfore Hour has a btter presentaion of love.

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′.

    b) Browning and Kalvati portray their feelings of love through imagery to help the reader feel that all encompassing feeling of love, helping to intensify these feelings and making them more relatable. Kalvati uses natural imagery such as “grass” “rose” and “breeze” to show that her love is natural and not artificial or forced. Their love is one sided and is not reciprocated or the energy that the poet expressive isn’t reflected by the other half. This is shown through the active voice of the partner and the passive voice of the poet, the way in which this is reiterated and repeated shows the feelings of the love they share. On the other hand Barrett Browning uses a mathematical lexis to try and quantify her feeling, making it seemed rehearsed and narcissistic. “let me count the ways-” this dash shows the reader that the poet feel joy and recognition of the partner and this it evokes another reaction from the poet towards them.

  16. Rhiannon says:

    A) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)
    In the poem ‘Hour’ Duffy presents the idea of true love in a unique fashion without the use of clichés; instead Duffy uses an extended metaphor of love in terms of monetary value ‘we are millionaires’. Duffy connotates the idea of true love as being like money in the modern day world, as nowadays it is impossible to live a happy life without a certain amount of money. However the use of ‘millionaires’ gives a sense of arrogance and implies a sense of foreboding, as millionaires are usually thought of as being self-centred and selfish.
    However in the poem ‘Ghazal’ the poet uses a more typical device to present true love; as she uses a large number of clichés in her poem. ‘Moth to my flame’ Khalvati uses clichés in a way which idealises true love, because these metaphors are used so often when used in this sense it make the reader believe that anyone can experience this feeling.
    B) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)
    Both poets use anaphora to convey their love for their partner. In ‘Sonnet 43’ Browning uses the repeated ‘I love thee’ to reinforce her love for her husband; the use of anaphora builds up a steady rhythm to the poem. Also it makes sure that the reader remembers the main theme in the poem of her love. When repeating this statement she gives her love a measured feel by saying she can count the ways in which she can love him; this relates to the special metaphor Browning uses ‘depth and breadth and height’ which gives her love a clinical feel.
    Khalvati also uses anaphora in the sense of a refrain with the end of each couplet ending in ‘me’ this makes her unrequited love seem more desperate as she wants him to accept her and love her the way that she loves him.

  17. sophie says:

    Love in ‘Hour’ is presented through more than just the text but through the context. The poem ‘Hour’ is written in a style of a sonnet traditionally used by shakespeare to represent love. Duffy uses objects to represent love such as ‘flowers ans wines’ the effect of this is that it emphasizes the modern day relationships. ‘Love spins gold, gold, gold from straw’ this suggests to the reader that the people in the poem have a sense of urgency and that they dont have enough time together that night is what brings an end to the relationship which is why the poet is so enthusiatic to skip the night. Where as in ‘Ghazal’ love is presented in a more suductive way. ‘Tattoo me’ suggests to the reader that love has a permanent mark on her. This creates ideas that lovers complete each other.

  18. Sara says:

    1) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’.
    Both writers use metaphors to present love, however in Ghazal multiple metaphors are used, this could represent the ever changing and unstable state of their love. However, despite the sheer number, when looking at the couplets themselves they are in compatible pairs – “If I rise to the east as you die in the west” the literal meaning and reference to the continuous cycle of the rising and setting of the sun reflects their opposite yet united relationship. This sense of togetherness is also used in Duffy’s poem as she says “we are millionaires”, however referring to being wealthy in their time together, therefore dismissing materialistic requirements of the relationship; being rich in each other’s company. This dismissal of worldly needs is also illustrated as she says “spend it not on flowers or wine, but the whole of the summer sky and a grass ditch”, Duffy embraces the simple pleasures in life and subverts from conventional love and clichés suggesting that is what makes a relationship genuine. Duffy uses metaphors to protest against the conformist view of love, whereas Khalvati utilises metaphors to embrace her relationship.

    2. Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′.
    Both writers use anaphora to put their intense feelings of love across. In Sonnet 43 the repetition of “I love thee” reiterates the central sentiment and suggests she cannot find adequate expression of her love. Barret Browning lists her dependency on her beloved in a childlike manner. This trait is continued as Browning attempts to measure an emotion, restricting the sonnet to being too mathematical and clinical, using a spatial metaphor “I love thee to the depth and breadth and height my soul can reach”, which leads the speaker to question the authenticity of her feelings. Similarly, in ‘Ghazal’ the repetition of the requests to “woo me”, “cue me”, “subdue me” and “pursue me?” at the end of each couplet reflect her surrender to her beloved, and her contentment to be controlled. This gives the impression of almost unrequited love, which is a common characteristic of a Ghazal. Both writers dramatise the feelings they possess and offer themselves entirely to their beloveds.

  19. Abi Jopson says:

    compare the ways in which the writers present love and ghazel

    Both the poems hour and Ghazal personify the idea of love to try and put their feelings into words. Duffy used references to love being relatable to a ‘beggar’ This suggests the idea that her love is desperate and dependable on other people. However in the poem Ghazal the poet describes love in a very physical way like in line 16 where it says ‘die for my sake, my love, every night renew me’ this is suggesting that she desires the physical aspect of love.

    compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘ghazal’ and sonner 43

    both poets put across their views in a different manner. In sonnet 43 browning lists the many ways in which she loved ‘thee’, using a childlike tone to convey here feelings. she is also trying to put a mathematical measure on a feeling that is meant to be infinite, this is shown in line 2 ‘I love thee to the depth and breadth and height’ however Khalvati does not put a limit on her love as she states ‘if i rise in the east as you die in the west’ if you follow the east to the west you will end back at the east again so it is a never ending circle. This is showing Khalvati to believe that love is infinite.

  20. Molly says:

    1. Both poems explore the theme of togetherness in great detail, with Ghazal centralising around the idea of an infatuation and lustful approach to love and Hour being based around the more cliché idea of being so in love that it is the only thing that matters and spending time together makes the speaker feel “rich”.

    Togetherness and belonging is portrayed in Ghazal as being physically intimate, by euphemistic and sexual innuendo, such as “every night renew me” and “pursue me”, these quotes represent the feeling of a dynamic, intimate relationship based on the speaker being subservient to the lover’s demands. The frequent repetition of “me” highlights the feeling of self-centredness and trying to please oneself is more important than pleasing anyone else. Additionally, the quote “come and I’ll come too when you cue me” has connotations of an erotic or sexual desperation, where the speaker is happy to do anything she is told to do by her lover.
    Alternatively, Duffy uses the quote “even a single hour, bright as a dropped coin, makes love rich” to introduce the central conceit of wealth, consequently showing that it doesn’t matter how short the time together they have is, all that matters is that they are together and that they are in love. Personally, I prefer this fairy-tale like and fantasy approach to love as it feels like an escapism and a happier, more contented relationship, based around mutual love and not love being based upon sexual desire like in Ghazal.

    2. Both poets express their feelings of love through the structure of their poems; Barrett-Browning opting for the traditional, 14 line Petrarchan sonnet and Khalvati choosing the more modern and unexpected form of a Ghazal to express her love and affection.

    Barrett-Browning’s use of a strict and disciplined 14 lined sonnet reinforces her traditional approach to love. She attempts to visualise the enormity of her love through the 14 line sonnet by using many literary devices. For example, the juxtaposition of the oxymoron “sun and candlelight” expresses how the speaker feels her love is continuous and her lover is the light that leads her way and is always there, linking to her reference to death in “if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death” in the final line of the sonnet, portraying how her love is eternal. The frequent biblical references including “God” in this quote and throughout the sonnet, highlight how the sonnet form is making her poem like a prayer, reiterating all the ways she is in love, but still sticking to the rigid, definite structure of the sonnet, which unfortunately makes the poem seem a little false, as although she has subverted some of the conventions of a traditional sonnet and made it more unconventional and untraditional by not using a Volta in the 7th line by having such a definite layout and formatting to her love, makes it seem slightly false and not realistic enough for the reader to truly understand the intensity and enormity of her love for her fiancé.

    Contrastingly, Khalvati’s use of the Ghazal form of poem, separates each of her ideas of love and desire from one another and by using stanza’s of just couplets to structure her poem, she is showing that each of her idea’s of love aren’t supposed to be connected as they are not narrative, but free verse. The separate nature of each stanza means that we are given a more varied and dynamic range of different ideas about her love, making the poem slightly less intense and dark. I t also puts emphasis on each separate couplet.

    Each couplet has a separate theme and sense to the rest of the poem, for example the first couplet uses natural imagery such as “the rose” and “the bird” to express her love and affection. The natural imagery connotates that love seems timeless, suggesting her love is permanent and profound as it is such a natural experience for her. However, “be my Friend, muse, lover and guide” in the 9th stanza presents an entirely different approach to love and affection. This time the love is platonic and just like a friendship, nothing more, suggesting nothing intense or serious or permanent, directly contrasting and contradicting the first stanza.
    I think the Ghazal form of presenting different ideas and themes in each stanza is more relatable and useful to the reader as it is lenient and allowing of various different approaches and feelings to love. It makes it easier to present a whole range of contrasting or co-ordinating ideas that stand individually by being individual stanza’s, but also by using many different ideas, instead of having a more formatted, rehearsed and definite structure like the Sonnet, making the love seem false and artificial.

  21. natalie says:

    1a) Both poets use natural metaphors and imagery to try and sum up the depths of their love. The poem hour uses the term ‘cuckoo spit’ to describe her love for her partner, and this is an unusual term to use as it is usually seen as unappealing and dull. However, Duffy presents it to evoke a sense that love can make even the dull things in life beautiful, and that beauty is non-materialistic in the eyes of love, as well as the idea that the everyday object of no particular value to people are precious to certain people when she says ‘no jewel hold a candle to the cuckoo spit’, as though the cuckoo spit is of higher value than a jewel. In Ghazal, Khalvati uses a reference to the beloved as a ‘crown’ to which she is merely a ‘leaf’ which creates the sense that the beloved is superior to her and therefore of worth and precious. This is similar to Hour in a way that the speaker sees the simplest things in life as being valuable, giving the non-idealistic sense to the poem Hour as it challenges the classic sonnet structure with unrequited love as in Ghazal.

    1b) Ghazal and Sonnet 43 both use a large amount of repetition, however contrastingly to connotate different levels of love. The anaphora of ‘I love thee’ in sonnet 43 seems child-like and forced, as the protestant tone evokes a sense of insincerity. On the other hand, whereas Ghazal also uses repetition of the word ‘if’, Mimi cleverly incorporates it into a questioning tone, which seems more sincere through the wishful sense of each couplet. Each couplet could infact be used as a separate poem due to the conflicting emotions in each, it contains a statement which makes her seem sure of the way she feels, and then the question challenges this idea of her certainty. In Sonnet 43 however, Browning makes bold statements to convey that she is definite about her feelings of love being true, contrasting with Ghazal’s uncertainty.

  22. sarah h says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

    Both poets present their love with intimacy and passion. In Hour, Duffy uses the device hyperbole to present her love intimately and fiercely. “For thousands of seconds we kiss”, the hyperbolic term “thousands of seconds” suggests the relationship is everlasting and that the couple can’t resist each other. The reader imagines a strong connection between Duffy and her partner and get a feel of the strength of the bond she shares. Duffy presents love as more affectionate and sexual rather than the beautiful, innocent and pure approach to love. Similarly, in Ghazal, Khalvati uses erotic imagery to suggest a sensual and intimate love that she feels towards her beloved. “If i am the grass and you the breeze, blow through me”. Khalvati uses phallic imagery “blow through me” to try and prove her infinite amount of passion and love she has to offer. On the other hand, the term also sounds as if she’s throwing herself at her beloved, with no dignity which conveys that she doesn’t care what her beloved thinks of her, as long as he gives her attention. In conclusion, both poets focus on the sensual side of love to try and prove the amount of uncontainable emotion they feel.

  23. Ella says:

    1) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’.

    Both poets use strong metaphors as a device to over exaggerative their love – in Hour, it is stated “For thousands of seconds we kiss”. Throughout the poem, it is implied that time and love are enemies and the two do not coincide; however, the use of this hyperbole stresses the extent of the time spent between the two lovers and their attempts to conquer the ‘seconds’. This presents their love to the reader as persevering though its obstacles and that the two are determined to make the most of what they can. In comparison, the metaphors used in Ghazal are generally either sadistic or erotic. The violent image of “when the arrow flies, the heart is pierced” suggests how Khalvati is under some sort of particular spell of which has enchanted the love. The use of the “arrow” gives the poem a mythological significance with its link to Cupid; this reinforces the idea of their love being an enchantment and the sinister impression causes a slight uneasiness with the reader.

    2) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and ‘Sonnet 43’.

    Both poets use a first person narrative viewpoint in order to establish a personal opinion within the poems. In Sonnet 43, Barrett Browning suggests her childish outlooks to the reader through many different manners. The constant use of the words “I love thee” gives a personal yet slight immature response to her initial question, insinuating her requirement to list specific reasons. The special metaphor of “to the depth and breadth and height” offers not much more than the idea of comparing Browning to a young child stretching its arms out and proclaiming ‘I love you this much’. However, the simplicity of the response provokes a mild suggestion of Browning’s love being endearing. On the other hand, Browning’s childish conduct is contrasted by Khalvati’s erotic expression of her love in Ghazal. The sexual innuendos throughout the poem suggest to the reader than the love between them is relatively passionate – for example, “come and I’ll come too when you cue me” symbolises their sensual relationship through euphemism for sexual pleasure and indicates that she is totally at his mercy. Overall, this portrays the poets’ feelings as more matured than that that of Browning’s.

  24. Hannah P says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

    Both Duffy and Khalvati present love as a victim to time. This is shown in the poem ‘Hour’ by the use of ‘love’s time’s beggar’ which gives the reader the impression that to have the love you have to have the time to go with it, it almost gives the reader a false sense of security because everyone wants love to be an everlasting thing but there is always a limit on how much time you can physically spend with that certain person. Also this is shown by ‘we find an hour together, spend it not on flowers or wine’ this suggests that love can’t be a cliché thing and that each moment that you are together it should be spent with each other rather than on materialistic items like wine. In the poem ‘Ghazal’ Khalvati shows to the reader that she has given up on love as it didn’t work the first time and she will always but a time frame on any love she gets after, this is represented by ‘if, when it ends’ this also suggests that she is already giving up on what could happen as it didn’t work out before. Also there is a sense of platonic love where the love is between friends rather than actual partners which also can suggest that love is presented as a victim of time.

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)

    Both poets use imagery to portray their feeling toward their partner. In the poem ‘Ghazal’ by Khalvati, there is many references to the natural world such as ‘ grass’ ‘rose’ ‘bird’ which suggests that her love is not forced or measurable which makes the feeling more natural and real rather than convincing yourself that these are your true feelings. Whereas in ‘Sonnet 43’ by Browning there is a more mathematical and artificial approach to love, this is shown by ‘let me count the ways’ it is like she is convincing herself to feel that way and that she needs to highlight the ways she loves someone before they are really true for her. Also ‘I love thee to the level of everyday’s most quiet need’ gives a sense of love that is only there when it is truly needed not there where it should be. The use of imagery is effective as it helps to show the feeling of the speaker really well.

  25. Raena says:

    a.) Both Duffy and Kalvati use references to imagery in illustrating their love. Hour by Carol Anne Duffy uses mythological references in order to illustrate her love as something indescribable and out of this world. ‘the Midas light’- refers to the Greek mythological figure and the references highlights how this love may be her fantasy; something which she doesn’t believe in herself but becomes so engrossed and attached to, it almost is a dream. She attempts to idealise love and highlights how controlling it can be as the result is almost inevitable like a story. ‘Spins gold, gold, gold’. Similarly, Mimi Kalvati uses visual imagery in Ghazal of ordinary objects and things. ‘I the grass and you the breeze’, the reference to unimportant every day things highlights the speaker’s desperation for a love which is normal by society. This highlights how the speaker’s love is impossible due to it being unreciprocated. We as the reader feel sympathy for her meek attempts to normalise her love as she is engrossed in her fantasy. This highlights how both writers attempt to idealise their love making is manufactured and illusory.
    b.) Both Mimi Kalvati of Ghazal and Elizabeth Barrett Browning of sonnet 43 utilise the spatial metaphor, in order to express the deep sentiments of love. Browning creates her love as three dimensional, ‘depth, breadth and height’, illustrates the mathematical approach towards love and describes it as a separate entity itself, thus making it animate. Similarly, Kalvati uses the metaphor to illustrate her profound love for her beloved. ‘I am only half the world you are to me’, this the connotations that she loves him more than herself, which highlights the significance of her love as she is neither selfish nor self absorbed. This makes the reader tearful as her feelings go unreciprocated. The use of the spatial metaphor by both poets is utilised to highlight how love can be measured, thus making this particular love imaginary.

  26. Katie says:

    a) Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’
    The writers of Hour and Ghazal both use metaphors to present love. In Hour the poet uses a metaphor for love as a beggar: ‘Love’s time’s beggar … a dropped coin, makes love rich’. By presenting love as a beggar and time as money this gives the impression that love is powerless to time because love is only able to progress over time. Similarly the poet of Ghazal uses many metaphors to present love. An example of one is when the poet writes: ‘I rise in the east as you die in the west’. This presents love as everlasting because the rising and setting of the sun and moon is a cylce that will last forever. Alternatively it could represent unrequited love because ‘east’s and ‘west’ are opposites and the poet writes ‘I rise … as you die’ which could suggest that maybe the speaker wishes to be with someone but they don’t.

    b) Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and ‘Sonnet 43’
    Both poets in Sonnets 43 and Ghazal use repetition to express their deep feelings of love. In Ghazal the poet uses a refrain to express how their love is unending to their partner. However, the refrain usually ends with a verb and the word ‘me’ which suggests the speaker is getting everything in the relationship and the reader may interpret this as being self-centered. Similarly Barrett Browning also uses repetition to express her feelings of love. She repeats the words ‘I love thee’ by doing this she puts emphasis on these words so it seems more sincere and true. Alternatively the reader may interpret Barrett Browning’s constant need to say ‘I love thee’ as being desperate.

  27. Tanoa says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’
    In the first stanzas of both poems, both writers express their love through the medium of metaphors. In “Hour”, Duffy expresses the fact that, “even a single hour, bright as a dropped coin, makes love rich”, Duffy uses the inanimate and materialistic object of a coin to represent the fact that time spent in love can create a mirage of wealth between two lovers. Duffy’s love is presented as rare and almost as a prise which can only be obtained, should another lose it or cast it away – this is a reflection of the competitive nature of her outlook on love and her own relationship, which perhaps provides clarity behind the reason for her relentless elevation of her lover above herself to such an extent. Duffy feels lucky to have found her, and perhaps that she is not worthy of such a partner as their time together in love (perhaps their relationship as a whole) shone out from the dirty ground – a mantra for Duffy’s previous experiences of love.
    In contrast, Khalvati uses verbs surrounding the subject of nature and the elements to present her love to the reader – “If I am the grass and you the breeze, blow through me”, as with Duffy, Khalvati elevates his love far above himself (in typical fashion for a Ghazal) by presenting himself as a stationary noun – in the form of grass and of his love as the ever moving, indecisive, powerful wind, which is capable of blowing through grass with no hesitation, as no obstacles face the resolve of it.

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′
    The writers of both Ghazal and Sonnet 43 are openly affectionate towards their lovers, not afraid to boldly declare their feelings, however desperate or indulgent they may appear to be through the tone of their expression. In Ghazal, it is clear that the relationship in question is unbalanced and unrequited or perhaps even unrecognised by the subjects of the speaker’s love – this is suggested by the use of the word ‘if’ opening every stanza, bar the last. The speaker the does not wish to presume that his feelings of love will be equally matched in an effort to prevent further pain, should he face rejection. The speaker however, fully surrenders himself to his love, giving them the power to control all aspects of their love – erotic, “come and I’ll come too when you cue me” “what shape should I take to marry your own” and emotional, “weave your spell and subdue me”.
    In “Sonnet 43”, we get the sense that Browning’s relationship is far more balanced and healthy than Khalvati’s – Browning does not self-deprecate, she is merely declaring the extent of her love for her partner. Browning’s expression of love appears controlled yet spontaneous – the poem is not separated into the stanzas, this exemplified the fact that Browning’s expressions of love do not need to be categorised, this is a pure expression and expulsion of love. The phrase “I love thee” opens the second, fifth, eighth, ninth, tenth and twelfth lines – through the often perceived pretentious, romantic language featured in sonnets, Browning aims to consistently highlight the message that she “loves thee” therefore, her feelings of love are sincere and uncontrived.

  28. Hannah says:

    1) In both Hour and Ghazal there is an unequal dynamic between the people in the relationship. In Hour the writer elevates her lover and presents her as perfect, she writes ‘no chandelier or spotlight see you better lit than here.’ Duffy is able to overlook her lover’s flaws where other people can’t. Duffy also references the legend of King Midas, a man who wishes for the ability to turn things to gold and ends up unhappy and alone. Duffy suggests that the idolisation of her partner is unhealthy and will result in sadness. Similarly in Ghazal the writer places themselves below the subject of their feelings. Khalvati writes ‘I’ll come too when you cue me.’ This suggests that the writer is happy to follow the person she loves and to obey them, it also connotates a dependence on the other person and a lack of freedom as she is constantly thinking about them and waiting for their signal. In both poems the writers elevate the other person above themselves in what could be seen as an insincere or unhealthy gesture of affection.

    2)In both Sonnet 43 and Ghazal imagery and the Sun and light are used to show the writer’s love for the other person. In Sonnet 43 Barrett Browning writes that she will love her fiancée by ‘most quiet need, by sun and candlelight.’ In this quote ‘sun’ represents daytime and ‘candlelight’ represents the night. The writer will love her partner in day and night, at all times. This could show the sincerity of her love and desire for the simple pleasure of spending time together. The word ‘candlelight’ suggests the simple and intimate nature of their relationship. In Ghazal the imagery of the Sun is also used. Khalvati writes ‘If I rise in the east as you die in the west, die for my sake’ This shows the grand nature of their love, as she asks her lover to die for her, the personification of the Sun shows a mythological element to their love. Both poems use sun and light, in Sonnet 43 to show simplicity and in Ghazal to show grandeur and importance.

  29. sarah h says:

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)

    In Ghazal and Sonnet 43, both writers demonstrate feelings of intensity and sensuality towards love. In Ghazal, Khalvati uses a masochistic phrase “tattoo me”. This suggests that she is seeking intimate pain and is willingly desiring enfliction. Her feelings suggests she wants lust and a sensual bond and the “tattoo” suggests that she wants to be branded, property of her partner. The tattoo cannot be removed therefore there is an everlasting attatchment between the couple and the writer feels seduced because of this. Similarly, Browning also describes an intense and sensual love but her feelings convey passion rather than lust. “By Sun and Candlelight” conveys an idea of being loved and protected permanently but not having to make a mark such as a tattoo to prove it. Also, Browning desires to be a protector and enflict passion onto her beloved whereas Khalvati would rather a victim and have pain enflicted upon.

  30. Louise says:

    a) In hour, Duffy uses imagery of precious things, to reflect how she values her love. “Treasure”, “gold” “jewel”. This idea is echoed in Ghazal, when Khalvati uses imagery of nature to show the pleasure and joy in loving, and being loved. “If I am the grass and you the breeze, blow through me”. I hour, Duffy uses lexis which in involves time. “For thousands of seconds”. This shows that she never wants her love to end, and she is constantly against time. “Backhanding the night”. This makes Duffy’s love seem quite artificial, because she is being selfish. However , in Ghazal, Khalvati uses language to do with animals and nature, which makes her love seem real and not artificial, like Duffy’s.

    b) Both Khalvati and Browning use questions in their poems to try and show their feelings of love for their partners. Browning uses the same question throughout her poem. “How do I love thee?”. This shows that she is trying to reassure herself of her love for her partner and it makes her love seem artificial. It also shows her to be a quite narcissistic person, because from the start, the poem is all about her. Similarly, in Ghazal, Khalvati uses a question – “pursue me”. This shows Khalvati as quite selfish because she wants her partner to chase after her, and love only her. Both poets portray their love as artificial in these poems.

  31. That Weird Kid. says:

    Compare the ways in which the writers present love in ‘Hour’ and ‘Ghazal’. (150 words)

    In Hour, love is presented as riches. Shades of greed seem to appear in this poem,, and she can appear quite protective in her emotive language, such as ‘time hates love’. The use of the word ‘hate’ is so strong, it makes the reader seem quite defensive and protective. Also in Ghazal, love is presented as a desirable thing. It is quite romanticised and clichéd. In the poem, she speaks as inferior to the audience, her lover. It is presented slightly as if it is a gift, which is reflected in Hour, when she says ‘we find an hour together’. It is phrased as if the personified time is giving love a gift. In both of the poems, the writer is seeking something with their lover. Whether it be time or just love, love is presented as something which is to be earned or given. Whether it be from your lover or from personified abstract nouns.

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)

    In Sonnet 43, the writer is very infatuated. It’s all slightly dreamlike, she is reciting the ways in which she loves ‘thee’. The overall theme is somewhat fairytale and unreal. Yet Browning’s feelings are very content and joyful, ‘Let me count the ways!’ – the exclamation mark shows her enthusiasm at the task she has been given to explain her love. Yet, in Ghazal, she seems a lot less sure. In Sonnet 43, it is clear that the lovers are together, but in Ghazal, she is only fantasising about this love that they could have. The feelings are more desperate, she has a desire for this love, ‘what shape should I take to marry your own’. Sonnet 43 has less doubt in its lines, but they both has a longing to explain their love for their partner. In Ghazal, it’s being done in more of an attempt at persuasion, but in Sonnet 43, it is done as an explosion of emotion, which reflects her feelings of happiness and content.

  32. Sophie says:

    Compare the feelings of the speakers shown in ‘Ghazal’ and Sonnet 43′. (150 words)

    Both khalvati and browing ask rhetorical questions throughout their poems to present their feelings for their partner. Browning repeats ‘How do i love thee’ this suggests to the reader that she has to reassure herself of her love for her partner and she has to have a pause to think about what to write next. This implies to the reader that thr love she has for her partner is artifical and just an infactuation. The repeating of ‘How do i love thee’ makes the poem memorable. From the start of the poem it is all about her showing that she is some what self aware and thta talking about herself takes away from the idea that the poem is about ‘Love’ this suggests to the reader that it is easier to talk about herself rather than to be thinking about her ‘Love’ for her partner showing she is selfish. This is also similar in ‘Ghazal’ as Khalvati repeats ‘Persue me’ which is making her alamost seem selfish as she wants her lover t chase after her; both lovers should want to be chasing each other not one just wanting to be chased. This makes her love for her partner seem artifical and also an infactuation which is seen from bth poets. This makes the reader question whether or not the ‘Love’ both poets are trying to talk about are geniune.

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